Haase Lab News: Original Publications
Erythropoietic effects of vadadustat in phase 3 trials
Congrats to Mark Koury and colleagues. This study investigates the effects of vadadustat on erythropoiesis and iron metabolism
Erythropoietic effects of vadadustat in patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease
Patients with chronic kidney disease develop anemia largely because of inappropriately low erythropoietin production and insufficient iron available to erythroid precursors. In four phase 3, randomized, open-label, clinical trials in dialysis-dependent and non−dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, vadadustat, was non-inferior to the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, darbepoetin alfa, in increasing and maintaining target hemoglobin concentrations. In these trials, vadadustat increased the concentrations of serum erythropoietin, the numbers of circulating erythrocytes, and the numbers of circulating reticulocytes. > …
HIF activation prevents bladder injury
This study from our lab demonstrates that HIF-activating compounds protect from cystitis
Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylation protects from cyclophosphamide-induced bladder injury and urinary dysfunction
Disruption of the blood-urine barrier can result in acute or chronic inflammatory bladder injury. Activation of the oxygen-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been shown to protect mucosal membranes by increasing the expression of cytoprotective genes and by suppressing inflammation. The activity of HIF is controlled by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases, which have been exploited as therapeutic targets for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Here we established a mouse model of acute cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced blood-urine barrier disruption associated with inflammation and severe urinary dysfunction to investigate the HIF-PHD axis in inflammatory bladder injury. We found that systemic administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or molidustat, two small molecule inhibitors of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (HIF-PHIs), profoundly mitigated CYP-induced bladder injury and inflammation as assessed by morphologic analysis of transmural edema and urothelial integrity and by measuring tissue cytokine expression. > …
Kidney EPO production in CKD is limited by myofibroblast transdifferentiation
This study from our lab demonstrates that HIF-PHIs do not stimulate EPO production in myofibroblasts
EPO synthesis induced by HIF-PHD inhibition is dependent on myofibroblast transdifferentiation and colocalizes with non-injured nephron segments in murine kidney fibrosis
Erythropoietin (EPO) is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2. In the kidney, it is produced by cortico-medullary perivascular interstitial cells, which transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts in response to injury. Inhibitors of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases (HIF-PHIs) activate HIF-2 and stimulate kidney and liver EPO synthesis in patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined whether HIF-PHIs can reactivate EPO synthesis in interstitial cells that have undergone myofibroblast transdifferentiation in established kidney fibrosis. > …
see commentary: The prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor molidustat fails to restore erythropoietin production in the fibrotic kidney [Acta Physiologica 2022].
Mitochondrial electron transport in renal development
This study from our lab identifies a differential role for mitochondrial electron transport in renal progenitors
Disruption of mitochondrial complex III in cap mesenchyme but not in ureteric progenitors results in defective nephrogenesis associated with amino acid deficiency.
Oxidative metabolism in mitochondria regulates cellular differentiation and gene expression through intermediary metabolites and reactive oxygen species. Its role in kidney development and pathogenesis is not completely understood. Here we inactivated ubiquinone-binding protein QPC, a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, in two types of kidney progenitor cells to investigate the role of mitochondrial electron transport in kidney homeostasis. Inactivation of QPC in sine oculis-related homeobox 2 (SIX2)-expressing cap mesenchyme progenitors, which give rise to podocytes and all nephron segments except collecting ducts, resulted in perinatal death from severe kidney dysplasia. > …
New insights into the effects of pharmacological HIF activation on renal hemodynamics
This study from our lab identifies a major role for HIF-dependent NO generation in GFR regulation
Pharmacological HIF-PHD inhibition reduces renovascular resistance and increases glomerular filtration by stimulating nitric oxide generation
HIF-activating compounds are currently in late-stage clinical development for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease. Although the effects of hypoxia on renal hemodynamics and function have been studied in animal models and in humans living at high altitude, the effects of pharmacologic HIF activation on renal hemodynamics, O2 metabolism and metabolic efficiency are not well understood. This cross-sectional study in healthy rats provides new mechanistic insights into dose-dependent effects of short-term pharmacologic HIF activation on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration and O2 metabolism. > …
see commentary: Get used to the -dustats: Roxadustat and molidustat, members of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) Prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitor drug class promote kidney function, perfusion and oxygenation in rats through nitric oxide [Acta Physiologica 2021].
Mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM in renal cystic disease
This study from our lab uncovered a critical role for TFAM in nephron maturation and renal cytogenesis using mouse genetics
Renal epithelial TFAM deficiency results in progressive mitochondrial depletion associated with severe cystic disease
Abnormal mitochondrial function is a well-recognized feature of acute and chronic kidney diseases. To gain insight into the role of mitochondria in kidney homeostasis and pathogenesis, we targeted mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a protein required for mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription that plays a critical part in the maintenance of mitochondrial mass and function. To examine the consequences of disrupted mitochondrial function in kidney epithelial cells, we inactivated TFAM in sine oculis-related homeobox 2-expressing kidney progenitor cells. TFAM deficiency resulted in significantly decreased mitochondrial gene expression, mitochondrial depletion, inhibition of nephron maturation and the development of severe postnatal cystic disease, which resulted in premature death. This was associated with abnormal mitochondrial morphology, a reduction in oxygen consumption and increased glycolytic flux. Furthermore, we found that TFAM expression was reduced in murine and human polycystic kidneys, which was accompanied by mitochondrial depletion. Thus, our data suggest that dysregulation of TFAM expression and mitochondrial depletion are molecular features of kidney cystic disease that may contribute to its pathogenesis.
for link to article click here
A role for hypoxic signaling in glomerular-tubulointerstitial cross-talk during renal injury
Congrats to Agnes, Hai-Chun and colleagues on the acceptance of their paper
Stabilization of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Ameliorates Glomerular Injury Sensitization after Tubulointerstitial Injury
Previously, we found that mild tubulointerstitial injury sensitizes glomeruli to subsequent injury. Here, we evaluated whether stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α), a key regulator of tissue response to hypoxia, ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury and impact on subsequent glomerular injury. Nep25 mice, which express the human CD25 receptor on podocytes under control of the nephrin promotor and develop glomerulosclerosis when a specific toxin is administered were used. Tubulointerstitial injury, evident by week two, was induced by folic acid, and mice were treated with an HIF stabilizer, dimethyloxalylglycine or vehicle from week three to six. Uninephrectomy at week six assessed tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Glomerular injury was induced by podocyte toxin at week seven, and mice were sacrificed ten days later. At week six tubular injury markers normalized but with patchy collagen I and interstitial fibrosis. Pimonidazole staining, a hypoxia marker, was increased by folic acid treatment compared to vehicle while dimethyloxalylglycine stimulated HIF-2α expression and attenuated tubulointerstitial hypoxia. The hematocrit was increased by dimethyloxalylglycine along with downstream effectors of HIF. Tubular epithelial cell injury, inflammation and interstitial fibrosis were improved after dimethyloxalylglycine, with further reduced mortality, interstitial fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis induced by specific podocyte injury. Thus, our findings indicate that hypoxia contributes to tubular injury and consequent sensitization of glomeruli to injury. Hence, restoring HIFs may blunt this adverse crosstalk of tubules to glomeruli.
for link to article click here
Dissecting the role of HIF-prolyl 4-hydroxylase oxygen sensors in neurovascular homeostasis
Congratulations to Andres Urrutia on his new paper in Acta Physiologica
Inactivation of HIF-prolyl 4-hydroxylases 1, 2 and 3 in NG2-expressing cells induces HIF2-mediated neurovascular expansion independent of erythropoietin (cover)
The study looks at the role of brain pericyte oxygen sensing and erythropoietin in neurovascular homeostasis.
for link to article click here
for link to commentary on this article click here
link to cover page
HIF in T cell metabolism
Congratulations to our collaborator Mark Boothby on the acceptance of his PNAS paper
Hypoxia-inducible factors in CD4+ T cells promote metabolism, switch cytokine secretion, and T cell help in humoral immunity
T cell help in humoral immunity includes interactions of B cells with activated extrafollicular CD4+ and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Each can promote antibody responses but Tfh cells play critical roles during germinal center (GC) reactions. After restimulation of their antigen receptor (TCR) by B cells, helper T cells act on B cells via CD40 ligand and secreted cytokines that guide Ig class switching. Hypoxia is a normal feature of GC, raising questions about molecular mechanisms governing the relationship between hypoxia response mechanisms and T cell help to antibody responses. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are prominent among mechanisms that mediate cellular responses to limited oxygen but also are induced by lymphocyte activation. We now show that loss of HIF-1α or of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α in CD4+ T cells compromised essential functions in help during antibody responses. HIF-1α depletion from CD4+ T cells reduced frequencies of antigen-specific GC B cells, Tfh cells, and overall antigen-specific Ab after immunization with sheep red blood cells. Compound deficiency of HIF-1α and HIF-2α led to humoral defects after hapten-carrier immunization. Further, HIF promoted CD40L expression while restraining the FoxP3-positive CD4+ cells in the CXCR5+ follicular regulatory population. Glycolysis increases T helper cytokine expression, and HIF promoted glycolysis in T helper cells via TCR or cytokine stimulation, as well as their production of cytokines that direct antibody class switching. Indeed, IFN-γ elaboration by HIF-deficient in vivo-generated Tfh cells was impaired. Collectively, the results indicate that HIF transcription factors are vital components of the mechanisms of help during humoral responses.
Phase II study on HIF-PHI vadadustat in hemodialysis patients
Effects of Vadadustat on Hemoglobin Concentrations in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis Previously Treated with Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) can correct anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events. Vadadustat, an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (HIF-PHD) dioxygenases, is an oral investigational agent in development for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD.
In a 16-week, open-label, multicenter, Phase 2 trial, Haase and colleagues evaluated vadadustat in 94 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis previously maintained on ESA therapy. Patients were converted to vadadustat and assigned to a prospective dose cohort: 300 mg daily, 450 mg daily, or 450 mg thrice weekly. The primary endpoints were the mean hemoglobin change from baseline to mid-trial and from baseline to end-of-trial.
No significant changes in hemoglobin concentrations were observed for the two time points in any of the three treatment groups. Hemoglobin concentrations remained stable after conversion from ESA therapy for the duration of the trial, with a single excursion >13 g/dL. Plasma concentrations of vadadustat or its metabolites were not affected by hemodialysis.
Post-hoc analyses found no association between the final vadadustat dose and achieved hemoglobin, baseline hepcidin, C-reactive protein, or previous ESA dose. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was comparable across treatment groups. No deaths occurred during the study. No serious AEs were attributed to vadadustat.
In summary this new study concluded that Vadadustat maintained hemoglobin concentrations in patients on hemodialysis previously receiving ESA therapy.
click here for link to erythropoiesis, iron metabolism and renal anemia
click here to access media files on renal anemia
Haase lab identifies a new role for HIF-PHD oxygen sensors in kidney development
Insufficient oxygenation during pregnancy negatively influences kidney development, which predisposes to chronic kidney disease at later stages in life. Kobayashi et al. demonstrate that deletion of HIF prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) 2 and 3, in FoxD1 lineage cells reduces kidney size and inhibits nephrogenesis in mice. Temporo-spatial expression pattern and studies on additional knockouts suggest the involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2. More …
click here to read the associated commentary in Kidney International
click here for link to research themes in the Haase lab